Jabir Al Fatah

When you talk to your friends, the sound travels through the air, or in another words, through the empty medium. According to physics, this empty space/medium isn't actually empty. It weighs something, it's full of activities and and it contains so many things. This sound is called analog sound. Let's consider this sound as data or information. So now you know that data can travel through the air. It has a specific type of wave property.

Interestingly enough, this sound or data can be converted into some form of numbers called binary numbers (0 and 1). These zero and one are just different states for electricity flow. Electricity level high means its 1 and low means its o. When this 0 and 1 are thrown into the air, it forms electromagnetic wave. This is a type of radio wave. So our data is no more called an analog, it will become digital. Digital wave has very much different characterstics than analog. Meaning digital wave is readble by computing device. So like sound, image, video and text and almost everything can be converted into binary format. And its possible to carry this numbers via empty medium. How?

Not so easy to answer. But I will give an example what explains most of it. Sara writes Hi to John on facebook. When this Hi is written, actually computer takes the text and breaks down into smaller pieces that we call data packet. This packets are nothing but some ones and zeros. First, they are sent to Sara's wireless router. The wireless router will free this numbers on the air. On the air, these numbers turned into radio wave. To avoid collison with others radio wave, we use a standard frequency level for this, and that is 2.4 Ghz to 5 Ghz. When the data packets were formed, the destination router's (John's router) address were specified within the packets. So the text Hi itself knows where John is sitting with his computer or device. After a long distance traveling (it happens very quickly though), that text will reach to John and John's router will only receive those numbers (not the text Hi). Finally when John's computer will accept it, the text will be reconstructed from binary numbers. John facebook will display the Hi. This entire process is done by an internet protocol called TCP/IP. Nowadays this TCP/IP is very popular, though UDP is also used for many cases.
[To wrap it up, energy and particle can travel through the air. For example light consists of particles and it can reach anywhere in this universe. The reason is that every particle, every matter, every molecule and everything in this universe are somehow connected to one another. That is how the wave also can run from one place to another place without needing any physical medium. Amazing, right?]

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