Jabir Al Fatah

We are living in an interesting age of science and enlightenment. The enlightenment in a sense where we, the citizen of the world, are constantly exploring the progress of science through discovery, innovation, collaboration, and experimentation. In this era of greatest adventure, we have managed a magnificent and complete incredible form of thinking (although some people will argue about being digitalized, which may not seem very magnificent to them), that has changed the way human beings live. In a very precise term, we call it the age of information, or the age of digitalisation. However, the digital information we interact with nowadays can somehow become vulnerable in a point where they need to be reused. What does it mean to be vulnerable in this regard?
Let us indulge into my personal reflection over the current situations of film collection (i.e., my hobby) in home.

One of my personal interest is collecting English movie DVD and save them for future view. I, an entertainment lover, watch Hollywood most frequently, and have a good collection of them that I have been doing since boyhood. Although they are saved somewhere in my computer’s hard drive, or in some cloud store (e.g., Dropbox, Google Drive), it is not entirely guaranteed that they will remain unchanged over time. For instance, hard drive can be broken which no longer supports data recovery, the video file format used today will may not be able to play themselves in future because of hardware and software upgradation- are some key factors that cause the unavailability of digital contents. More so, digital objects are extremely fragile, and they become obsolete with the passage of time. Digital contents (in my case Movie) are written in a sequence of bits and every different formats of movie follow some distinctive manner to encode themselves, which must be read by video player. There may be no supportive program available to interpret the bit sequence, because it was created with a software that has since become out-of-date. Moreover, it is worth saying that personal hobby like film collection requires long term preservation, so that one specific film can be sorted out among many, and create opportunity to other people watch from the archive.

Therefore, there is an obvious necessity to enhance the preservation technique in such a way that helps the upcoming technology accessing into the resource in more independent manner. According to David Giaretta [2], there are some general threats in digital preservation which includes human error, natural disaster, continuity of organisation, and political instability etc. Having those into consideration, the film archive, in which I may store all the films, are not ensured with 100% safety. I, however, believe that one or more threats mentioned above can be the subject of issues with my current situation of digital storage (e.g., Hard disc and cloud database).

"In 2008, the American Library Association approved this definition: "Digital preservation combines policies, strategies and actions that ensure access to digital content over time [1]."
However, typical archival system like OAIS can reduce the risk as it consists of stronger organisation of people. Although it does not offer for any infinite-term preservation technique, it is long enough to be concerned with the impact of updating technologies, what is the exact need for my video preservation. Some pioneering aspects of OAIS are it is platform independent, it doesn’t require any particular design paradigm, development methodology, database management system or any sort of things. Thus, I believe there is an undeniable urge to migrate my data into a revolutionary archival system like OAIS. Not to mention, one of the functional model of OAIS (i.e., Access Function) provides the GUI that allows users to retrieve information from the OAIS archive- which is being done by generating a DIP (Dissemination Information Package) from the corresponding AIP (Archival Information Package) and serves it to the users who has asked to get the information. Another tremendous reference model of OAIS is that it includes foundations that may be expanded with the help of other efforts to cover long-term preservation of non-digital objects. Although I have not studied this area well yet, my initial reaction to this trend is very positive and this feature is certainly an advantage in my case, because, in such way, the physical CD/DVD disc will have an option to store into the archive. The movies that I have been collecting since the beginning are currently stored in my hard disc and other cloud storages. I doubt the contents will still remain usable and accessible after a certain period of time as technology changes very fast in computer industries. There might be other major threats such as Non-maintainability of essential hardware, software or support environment may make the data inaccessible. To eliminate those risks, I have decided not to rely on only the traditional data archive, rather an advanced and more reliable archival platform, for instance, OAIS.
Now I will walk you thorough some in-depth concepts of digital preservation. When I say preservation, I actually mean it to preserve in some archive. The purpose of the "archive" is to store history of the local community. Two of the most important notions regarding the digital preservation are:
(1) Preservation Description Information (PDI)
(2) Representation Information
So what are they and what it has to do with our actual issue of digital preservation?
The Archive must include data or information that will support the access to and context of the Object Information over an indefinite period of time.

"The specific set of Information Objects, which are required for this function, is collectively called PDI [6]."

It must include information that is necessary to adequately preserve the particular Content Information with which it is associated [6]. On the other hand, Representation information is any information required to understand and render both the digital material and the associated metadata. Digital objects are stored as bitstreams, which are not understandable to a human being without further data to interpret them [7].

"Representation information is the extra structural or semantic information, which converts raw data into something more meaningful [7]."

To get even more clear and doubtless idea, let us consider this image above (playing dog in the snow). This image is actually a digital object. If you want to get a big insight about this object, please download it and open with any image viewer. You can then check the properties by right clicking the file. I will explain exactly what you will see in its properties. I will consider the PDI and Representation Information concept while describing.

1. PDI
1.1 Reference
The title information for a digital object is a standard bibliographic practice. This implies in particular that [3]:
(1) more than one title can be provided. Each title should specify its level (i.e. whether it applies to a collection of separately described objects or to a standalone or monographic item).
(2) each title should again specify its type (i.e. whether it is a main, parallel, uniform, subordinate title).
However, the only title for this object is Zeb playing in the snow. The editing right is permitted. That means the title can however be modifiable. The Author of origin is Jörgen Nilsson. According to the current permission set for the object, the author can be switched, and more author can be added. Time at which the image was captured: 2011-03-20 11:16. The copyright is set to the current author. Exchangeable image file format (Exif) version [extended from JPG File (.jpg) filename extension] is 0221
1.2 Context
Context is used to documents the relationships of the Content Information to its environment (e.g., why it was created, relationships to other Content Information) [4]. The values for tag are ball, blue merle, bridge etc. The reason for its creation can be assumed from the title defined. However, some major properties such as definition, purpose, example are missing (according to my observation) in this object.The attribute type is A, that indicates archive.
1.3 Provenance
It documents the history of the Content Information (e.g., its origins, chain of custody, preservation actions and effects) [2]. The camera used to capture the photo was Canon (model: Canon EOS 55oD), F-stop rate: f/7.1 with the focal length specified 23 mm- which results us an aperture diameter with ≈3.24 mm. The exposure is the amount of light accessing through per unit of the focused lens. The exposure time for the given object (also known as shutter speed) is 640 secs per unit (1/640 secs). Exposure bias was 0 EV (zero step), that is no additional exposure selection was made while capturing. Metering mood (i.e., which determines the shutter speed, make the image brighter, and, or darker depending on the exposure rate) was set as default pattern.
1.4 Fixity
The fixity information is not very obvious according to the object’s properties. The copyright set is 2011 Jörgen Nilsson, which may not be altered in an undocumented manner.
1.5 Access Rights
The object permission is set as both read and write. The permission for my current system is allowed with full control, modifiable, read & execute.
2. Representation Information
2.1 Structure Representation information
The original image size is 800 pixels x 534 pixels. The image resolution is set with 72 dots per inch in both horizontal and vertical axes. It describes how close are the image details (e.g., lines, dots). The higher the resolution is, the better the image looks like. Bit depth (also known as color depth) is 24, which means 24 bits are set for colour representation in each pixels. The more bit depth represents the more vivid color.
2.2 Semantic
This is needed on top of the structure information. If the digital object is interpreted by the structure information as a sequence of text characters, the semantic information should include details of which language is being expressed [5]. Practically speaking, the image property in the image viewer doesn’t necessarily tells us the semantic information lying under the object’s structure.

[1] What Is Digital Preservation? https://fclaweb.fcla.edu/content/what-digital-preservation (accessed 6 October 2016).
[2] David Giaretta. Advanced Digital Preservation [Internet]. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2011. http://link.springer.com.ludwig.lub.lu.se/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-16809-3 (accessed 6 October 2016).
[3] Preservation Description Information. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~lou/wip/Cedars/pdi.htm (accessed 6 October 2016)
[4] A Metadata Framework to Support the Preservation of Digital Objects. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/activities/pmwg/pm_framework.pdf (accessed 6 October 2016).
[5] Representation Information.http://www.paradigm.ac.uk/workbook/preservation-strategies/file-representation.html (accessed 6 October 2016).
[6] Preservation Description Information. http://wiki.dpconline.org/index.php?title= (accessed 6 October 2016).
[7] What Is Preservation Information? http://www.dcc.ac.uk/node/9558 (accessed 6 October 2016).

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